A recent investigative report from the Texas Tribune revealed new information relating to the sharing of newborn blood spots (NBS) in Texas.
In November 2009, Texas Tribune reporters contacted the Texas Department of State Health Services (TDSHS) with a record request to review agency information and activities related to the NBS as permitted under the state’s Sunshine laws. TDSHS refused, maintaining that the NBS records were confidential. After parties filed the settlement with the court, Texas Tribune inquired again to obtain the records and found that TDSHS transferred hundreds of de-identified NBS to the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology to build a mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) registry.
The Armed Forces Institute of Pathology designed the mtDNA registry as a forensics tool to identify missing persons, solve old crimes, and eventually, share the samples internationally for law enforcement and anti-terrorism efforts. Throughout the plaintiffs’ allegations and questions, TDSHS asserted it was storing and using the NBS for medical research, never mentioning any forensic use even through plaintiffs’ attorney James Harrington specifically inquired how TDSHS used the samples. TDSHS’ provision of information relating to the mtDNA registry would have been both directly pertinent and material to answering plaintiffs’ questions about the NBS disposition and how plaintiffs chose to proceed with the lawsuit.
In addition to the information on the mtDNA registry, the records request also uncovered email communications from the time when TDSHS began storing NBS at Texas A & M University. When the storage began, Texas A & M asked to issue a press release, but a TDSHS official stated that releasing this information made him “nervous” and would “only generate negative publicity.”
Although the decision revealed in the emails prevented public knowledge of storage for research use, it demonstrates a problematic mentality that transparency poses an unnecessary burden. Remaining in the dark about research using NBS is one issue, but failing to disclose (even when asked on several occasions) that the NBS are included in a registry for forensic and future law enforcement purposes creates a multitude of distinct issues. Both explicit knowledge and consent should be required to include one’s DNA in such a database.
Following terms of the settlement agreement, TDSHS’s website lists projects for which TDSHS uses the NBS. The mtDNA registry is now included on this list of projects, and TDSHS spokesperson Carrie Williams maintains that it falls within the category of “public health research.”
Sweeping forensic and law enforcement uses into the definition of public health research warrants close analysis. First, a plain reading of each definition would clearly show that the purpose of research into the causes of autism is not remotely connected to using DNA to identity a suspected criminal. Applying such a definition extends the limits of creative statutory interpretation too far. Second, states’ legislatures have attempted to impose limits on the use of NBS and other biological samples by creating exemptions or abbreviated pathways when the samples are used for public health research. Including forensic and law enforcement purposes ignores this precision and opens the possibility that samples would be shared for even more uses that would not disclosed to the public because the state health department could use this precedent to assume this use also would constitute “public health research.”
The potential for negative publicity alone should not serve as a barrier to transparency, but rather encourage public education for why TDSHS thought giving NBS to the mtDNA registry (with proper consent) would be beneficial. Dodging specific inquiries related to the uses of NBS, failing to disclose that they were given to this registry, and subsequently classifying the registry as a public health project have created even more of a publicity nightmare than TDSHS could have imagined. Other state health departments may be wise to assess whether their own policies encourage transparency, public engagement, and a sincere interpretation of what projects constitute public health research.